TEST

REFDESCRIPTIONSAMPLES FOR GEL TEST FOR KIT Interlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE600KCONCENTRATED URINE/CSF AND SERUM PROTEINS ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE601K26260
SRE636K39390
SRE602KCONCENTRATED URINE/CSD AND SERUM PROTEINS β1-β2 ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE603K26260
SRE627KSERUM AND CONCENTRATED URINE IMMUNOFIXATION ACID VIOLET STAIN KIT220
SRE628K440
SRE639K660
SRE623KSERUM AND CONCENTRATED URINE IMMUNOFIXATION ACID BLUE STAIN KIT220
SRE624K440
SRE643K660
SRE629KSERUM AND CONCENTRATED URINE PENTAVALENT IMMUNOFIXATION KIT660
SRE630K12120
SRE625KBENCE-JONES IMMUNOFIXATION KIT 220
SRE626K440
SRE640K660
SRE607KH.R. PROTEINS ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE604KALKALINE HAEMOGLOBINS ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE605KACID HAEMOGLOBINS ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE606KLIPOPROTEINS ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE621K26260
SRE612KLDH ISOENZYMES ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE610KALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ISOENZYMES ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE611KCK ISOENZYMES ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130
SRE622KCSF ISOELECTROFOCUSING KIT660

NOTE: THE ANTISERA FOR IMMUNOFIXATION ARE SOLD SEPARATELY

KIT CONTENT

CODEDESCRIPTIONSAMPLES FOR GEL TEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE600K CONCEN-TRATED URINE/ CSF AND SERUM PROTEINS ELECTRO-PHORESIS KIT 13130
SRE601K26260
SRE636K39390

The new formula kits for Serum Proteins and Concentrated Urine/CSF enable separating human serum and concentrated urine proteins by electrophoresis on agarose gel. Human serum proteins are separated into five distinct and well-defined zones or bands, each containing one or more different proteins. The patterns are then subjected to visual inspection to identify anomalies including band variations. The densitometry of the patterns allows the quantitative evaluation of the protein zones.

The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

Reagent Preparation: All reagents are ready for use.

Sample preparation: Fresh serum sample. Concentrated urines or CSF to a final total protein concentration ≥ 20 g/L.

Sample storage and stability: Serum: 1 week at 2 °C ÷ 8°C Urine/CSF: 1 week at 2°C ÷ 8°C and 1 month at -20°C Human biological fluids contain a mixture of proteins and protein complexes. Each protein carries out a specific function in physiological processes; it is also known that the concentrations of the different proteins in serum vary according to the individual’s health condition, normal or pathological. Among the many available protein separation methods, electrophoresis is a well-established and versatile technique, widely used in laboratory routines. The most well-known technique for electrophoresis protein analysis is the zone electrophoresis on agarose gel. Serum protein electrophoresis at pH 8.9 produces five bands: albumin and four globulins (each fraction can consist of several types of proteins) indicated as alpha 1 (a1), alpha 2 (a1), beta (b) and gamma (g). The analysis of the individual bands, carried out by visual inspection, provides a valuable diagnostic support as it displays a general picture of the major proteins involved in functional and pathological processes.

The appearance of plasma proteins in the urine (proteinuria) is very important to evaluate the kidney function. In physiological proteinuria, the amount of proteins in urine collected over 24 hours can reach 150 mg. Urine electrophoresis is the best way to detect abnormal proteins in urine. The presence of an abnormal band requires a complementary immunofixation analysis (for example to assess the presence of Bence-Jones protein). Abnormal proteins may be present in urine even if the proteinuria is normal.

CODEDESCRIPTIONSAMPLES FOR GEL TEST FOR KIT Interlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE602K CONCENTRATED URINE/CSD AND SERUM PROTEINS β1 -β2 ELECTROPHORESIS KIT 13130
SRE603K26260
SRE637K39390

The new formula kits for Serum Proteins β1 -β2 and of Concentrated Urines/CSF enable to separate human serum and concentrated urine proteins by electrophoresis on agarose gel. Human serum proteins are separated into six distinct and well-defined zones or bands, each containing one or more different proteins. The patterns are subjected to visual inspection to identify anomalies including band variations. The densitometry of the patterns allows the quantitative evaluation of the protein zones. The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

 

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready for use.

 

Sample preparation:

Fresh serum sample. Concentrated urines or CSF to a final total protein concentration ≥ 20 g/L.

 

Sample storage and stability:

Serum: 1 week at 2° C to 8°C; Urine/CSF: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C and 1 month at -20°C

 

 

 

The visual inspection of the electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins on agarose gel plate can provide useful information for those proteins that are the most representative components of the bands. Detection of any variation in the concentration of one or more bands and/or the appearance of further bands, often paraproteins, has an important clinical significance (e.g. monoclonal bands, nephrotic syndrome, and decreased alpha 1 anti-trypsin). The serum protein electrophoresis on agarose gel plates for the resolution of b1 and b2 fractions at alkaline pH allows to separate six fractions: albumin, alpha 1 (α1), alpha 2 (α2), beta 1 (β1), beta 2 (ß2) and gamma (γ).

The main component of beta 1 is transferrin, a protein that transports ferric ions from intracellular reservoirs to the bone marrow, where the cellular precursors of erythrocytes and lymphocytes bear transferrin receptors on their cell membranes. This protein plays an important role in iron metabolism. Different types of transferrin have been described according to their structural features, all showing beta 1 mobility. Due to the presence of paraproteins, it is possible to observe the splitting of the beta band 1. Heterozygosis of transferrin, a rare condition, produces the splitting of the beta 1 band into two smaller bands which can mimic paraproteins and should be confirmed with a differential diagnosis. Another condition that results in the splitting of the beta 1 band is the low content of sialic acid, which can be found in patients with severe hepatitis or in alcoholics. The pathological increase of the transferrin band is a constant finding in the presence of low iron concentration due to anaemia. The decrease in the transferrin concentration is of little diagnostic utility and reflects diminished hepatic synthesis.

The beta 2 band is associated with the C3 component, a molecule which plays a central role in the complement system, a large group of proteins which trigger inflammatory reactions and act as an effector in the lysis of pathogens and phagocytosis of the antigens. The visual inspection of the beta 2 band therefore allows verifying the functional activity of this important system. The decrease in C3 is observed in autoimmune diseases (e.g. LES) and rheumatoid arthritis. Another pathological condition associated with the marked reduction in beta 2 is post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Component C3 is synthesised in the liver, therefore liver diseases may reduce its normal synthesis. The low concentration of C3 may also reflect the genetic condition of reduced expression of the protein. The increase in the beta 2 band has little clinical value since C3 is an acute phase protein.

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE627KSERUM AND CONCENTRATED URINE IMMUNOFIXATION ACID VIOLET STAIN KIT220
SRE628K440
SRE639K660

The new Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE) kits allow the qualitative identification of monoclonal components in human serum and concentrated urine/CSF. The use of the high sensitivity Acid Violet staining agent and the new formulation guarantee fast and highly sensitive procedures. The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready to use except for the immunofixation washing solution which must be diluted (50ml to a final volume of 1L with distilled water).

Sample preparation:

Diluted fresh serum sample. Concentrated urines or CSF to a final total protein concentration ~ 5 g/L.

Sample storage and stability:

Serum: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C

Urine/CSF: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C and 1 month at -20°C

Neoplastic proliferation of single clones of plasma cells, a condition known as monoclonal gammopathy, causes the abnormal synthesis of monoclonal immunoglobulins, i.e. of a biochemically homogeneous group of immunoglobulins consisting of only one type of heavy chain and light chain. These monoclonal immunoglobulins are also called paraproteins and are frequently associated with a large heterogeneous group of plasma cell dyscrasias.

In most cases, these paraproteins produce one or more clear bands in the electrophoresis pattern obtained from serum and/or urine samples. Although monoclonal components are typical of myeloma, they also appear in the electrophoresis patterns of patients with other conditions such as infections and autoimmune disorders. They are occasionally present in a small number of benign conditions in the elderly.

These bands are generally described as “suspect monoclonal components”, and their biochemical identity requires further investigation with sensitive and specific electrophoresis methods. Confirmation of the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin, together with the characterisation of the immunoglobulin type (e.g. IgG, k or IgM, l), are of crucial importance for the definitive diagnosis. Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE) is a laboratory method used to define the biochemical identity and homogeneity of immunoglobulins in the case of suspect monoclonal components in the electrophoresis patterns of biological fluid proteins. The IFE Acid Violet staining agent method combines the resolution of the protein fractions by electrophoresis with the specific recognition of the molecules obtained by using antibodies targeting the heavy chains of human immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and their light chains, kappa and lambda. The binding between the specific antibody and the monoclonal immunoglobulin leads to the formation of a precipitate band on the corresponding path which identifies the type of immunoglobulin, either heavy chain and/or light chain. The use of Acid Violet, a highly sensitive protein stain, further improves the quality of the electrophoresis outcome, providing an improved visual inspection of the results.

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GEL TEST FOR KIT Interlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE623K SERUM AND CONCEN-TRATED URINE IMMUNO-FIXATION ACID BLUE STAIN KIT220
SRE624K440
SRE643K660

The new Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE) kits allow the qualitative identification of monoclonal components in human serum and concentrated urines. No dilution of the sample is required. The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

 Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready to use except for the immunofixation washing solution which must be diluted (50ml to a final volume of 1L with distilled water).

Sample preparation:

Fresh serum sample. Concentrated urines to a final total protein concentration ~ 5 g/L.

Sample storage and stability:

Serum: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C

Urine/CSF: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C and 1 month at -20°C

Monoclonal immunoglobulins originate from neoplastic processes of the lymphocytes which produce antibodies. The principle of immunofixation is based on the visualisation of specific proteins through antigen-antibody precipitation, carried out after electrophoretic migration. Patient specimens are placed in the sample wells; the major protein groups are then separated by electrophoresis.

For each immunofixation sample, six patterns are obtained on the gel plate. A pattern is treated with a fixative solution to obtain a serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) reference pattern. Subsequently, specific antisera are applied to the other five patterns. In particular, antisera target heavy chains, gamma (IgG), alpha (IgA), mu (IgM) and light chains k and l (free and bound).

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE629KSERUM AND CONCENTRATED URINE PENTAVALENT IMMUNOFIXATION KIT660
SRE630K12120

The new Pentavalent Immunofixation electrophoresis kits provide a fast method for detecting (whether present or not) suspect monoclonal components to the visual inspection of routine serum and concentrated urine electrophoresis pictures. Samples for which there is a doubt concerning the presence of a monoclonal component are migrated to a double deposition on agarose gel. After the migration, the first pattern is treated with the fixative solution, the second instead with a pentavalent antiserum containing immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA, IgM and anti-Kappa and Lambda chains (free and bound). The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 instrument.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready to use except for the immunofixation washing solution which must be diluted (50ml to a final volume of 1L with distilled water).

Sample preparation:

Diluted fresh serum sample. Concentrated urines or CSF to a final total protein concentration ~ 5 g/L.

Sample storage and stability:

Serum: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C Urine / CSF: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C and 1 month at -20°C

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE625KKIT PER L’IMMUNOFISSAZIONE DI BENCE JONES220
SRE626K440
SRE640K660

The Bence Jones immunofixation (IFE BJ) kits are designed to be used for the qualitative identification of Bence-Jones proteins and of both normal and abnormal proteins in neat human urine. The IFE Bence – Jones method combines the resolution of protein fractions by electrophoresis with the specific recognition of the molecules obtained through the use of antibodies targeting the heavy chains of human immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and their light chains, kappa and lambda, both bound and free.  The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready to use except for the immunofixation washing solution which must be diluted (50ml to a final volume of 1L with distilled water).

Sample preparation:

Neat urine

Sample storage and stability:

Urine: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C and 1 month at -20°C

The immunoglobulin molecule is a tetramer containing two heavy chains that define the class (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE) and two light chains, called kappa and lambda respectively. Each immunoglobulin contains a pair of light chains of the same type, either kappa or lambda. Immunoglobulins are synthesised and released in the bloodstream by plasma cells. Multiple myeloma originates from the neoplastic proliferation of a single plasma cell clone which secretes an anomalous number of antibodies. The mutations of immunoglobulin genes can give rise to myeloma cells which produce: • only light chains, a condition called the Bence-Jones myeloma • only heavy chain fragments of immunoglobulins.

The overproduction of this monoclonal protein, present in a variety of shapes and sizes, is a common aspect of multiple myeloma and of AL amyloidosis. Immunoglobulin light chains, or Bence-Jones proteins, pass from plasma to urine and are therefore considered the tumour marker of multiple myeloma. Their detection in urine therefore provides valuable information for the initial diagnosis and for the “follow-up”. Multiple myeloma screening tests and studies also include electrophoretic methods with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting free light chains.

Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE) is a laboratory method used to define the biochemical identity and homogeneity of immunoglobulins or of light chains, should suspect monoclonal components be detected in the electrophoresis patterns of biological fluid proteins. The IFE Bence – Jones method combines the resolution of protein fractions by electrophoresis with the specific recognition of the molecules obtained through the use of antibodies targeting the heavy chains of human immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and their light chains, kappa and lambda, both bound and free. The binding between the specific antibody and the monoclonal protein, i.e. the complete immunoglobulin and/or the bound and free light chains, leads to the formation of a precipitate band on the corresponding path which identifies the type of immunoglobulin, either heavy chain and/or light chain. The use of Acid Violet, a highly sensitive protein stain, further improves the quality of the electrophoresis outcome, providing an improved visual inspection of the results.

CODEDESCRIPTIONSAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE607KH.R. PROTEINS ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130

The H.R. Proteins Electrophoresis Kit (High Resolution) allows the separation of serum, urine and liquor (Cerebrospinal fluid, CSF) proteins by means of electrophoresis on agarose gel plates. Separated proteins in the electrophoretic pattern are subjected to visual inspection in order to identify the pathological profiles, which include both the qualitative variations of the bands and the appearance of new additional bands in the pattern. The kit allows the use of urine samples as they are. The innovative multiple application method substantially improves sensitivity (1.5mg/dl per band) and hence the identification of small bands.  The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready for use.

Sample preparation:

Neat urine Serum diluted 1:20. Concentrated CSF to a final total protein concentration of 10 g/L.

Sample storage and stability:

Serum: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C and 1 month at -20°C

Urine/CSF: 1 week at 2° C ÷ 8°C and 1 month at -20°C

Urine is formed by ultrafiltration of the plasma through the glomerular capillary wall which acts as a selective filter for large plasma proteins. The passage of plasma proteins through the glomerular barrier is based on the molecular size, the electrical charge and the molecular configuration. All molecules with a molecular weight greater than 50,000 dalton are retained by the glomerular filter. Albumin and transferrin have molecular weights of 65,000 and 80,000 respectively and are almost completely retained, only 0.1% of each protein crosses the barrier. All plasma proteins with a molecular mass of less than 50,000 dalton cross the glomerular wall, but they are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells and degraded by enzymes into amino acids which are then reintegrated into the bloodstream.

The final filtrate generally contains traces of albumin and transferrin (less than 0.1% of total proteinemia). Albumin and transferrin are proteins normally found in urine at low concentrations. Physiological proteinuria is about 150mg/24hrs. Urine electrophoresis is the method of choice to detect the presence of abnormal proteins. The presence of an anomalous band (e.g. a band in the transferrin zone) requires an additional identification analysis (Bence-Jones immunofixation).

The presence of proteins in zones a1 and a2 requires further insights (micro-proteins, etc.). Abnormal proteins in urine may also be present with normal proteinuria levels. It is recommended to use fresh urine immediately after collection as some proteins are denatured at alkaline pH and others at acid pH (for example, ß2 microglobulin is denatured at pH 5.5, while the Retinol Binding Protein, RBP is denatured at alkaline pH).

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE604KALKALINE HAEMOGLOBINS ELECTRO-PHORESIS KIT13130

The Alkaline Haemoglobin Electrophoresis Kit is designed for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of normal (A1, A2 and F), abnormal, or variant (S or D and C or E) haemoglobins by electrophoresis on agarose gel. It is necessary to carry out an electrophoresis of the acidic haemoglobins to confirm the variant haemoglobins S, D, C, E. The electrophoretic test is performed at alkaline pH and provides a valid method for screening haemoglobin patterns. The densitometry of the pathway also allows the quantitative evaluation of the haemoglobin variants. The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready for use.

Sample preparation:

After the red blood cells are washed, they are lysed as follows: 50μl of washed red blood cells + 200μl of lysing solution

Sample storage and stability:

Whole Blood: 1 week at 2°C ÷ 8°C

Hemolysate: 12 hours at 2°C ÷ 8°C

There are three types of haemoglobins in the red blood cells of a normal adult. HbA is the largest fraction, while HbA2 and HbF are present in small quantities. The two most well-known mutant haemoglobins are HbS and HbC (Hb Lepore, Hb Bart’s, HbH, HbE, HbG-Philadelphia, HbD-Los Angeles, and HbO-Arab are less frequent).

The electrophoretic analysis of alkaline haemoglobin allows separating normal haemoglobins (HbA and HbA2) as well as some abnormal haemoglobins or variants (HbS or HbD and HbC or HbE). However, some haemoglobins can co-migrate (e.g. HbA2 and HbC, or HbS and HbD).

Haemoglobins which have the same electrophoretic mobility can be differentiated by electrophoretic test at acid pH. Acid haemoglobin electrophoresis allows these haemoglobins to be separated in order to confirm the identity of clinically relevant haemoglobins such as HbA, HbF, HbS and HbC

Haemoglobinopathies include a large number of hereditary disorders which can produce both qualitative changes in the haemoglobin structure and quantitative variations in the haemoglobin synthesis. Both situations lead to an imbalance of the normal concentration of the different types of haemoglobins

The term ‘Thalassemia’ describes a group of pathological conditions (also called ‘syndromes’) which produce similar clinical effects, whose main biochemical feature is the imbalance between the synthesis rate of one globin chain type and that of its complementary one. The different synthesis speeds of the globin chains damage red blood cells whose destruction leads to anaemia.

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KIT Interlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE605KACID HAEMOGLOBINS ELECTRO-PHORESIS KIT13130

The Acid Haemoglobin Electrophoresis kit is designed to perform qualitative analysis for identifying normal and abnormal haemoglobin, or variants, by electrophoresis on agarose gel. The electrophoretic test is carried out at acid pH and is mainly used to confirm the biochemical identity of clinically relevant haemoglobins such as A, F, S and C.

The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

 

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready for use.

Sample preparation:

After the red blood cells are washed, they are lysed as follows: 50μl of washed red blood cells + 450μl of lysing solution

Sample storage and stability:

Whole Blood: 1 week at 2°C ÷ 8°C

Hemolysate: 12 hours at 2°C ÷ 8°C

The haemoglobin synthesis is under genetic control and the presence of abnormal haemoglobins is associated with functional, physical and morphological red cell abnormalities. Haemoglobins are made up of peptide chains of globin and iron protoporphyrin heme groups. Normal haemoglobins have similar structures with a molecular weight of about 67,000 daltons and consist of 2 pairs of globin chains each associated with a heme molecule.

Haemoglobin A polypeptide chains 2 a and 2 b

Haemoglobin A2 polypeptide chains 2 a and 2 d

Haemoglobin F polypeptide chains 2 a and 2 g

The haemoglobins of a normal adult are represented by HbA (98% of total haemoglobin) and by HbA2 and HbF in small amounts. The substitution of amino acids in the polypeptide chain sequences leads to the formation of abnormal haemoglobin variants. To date, more than 600 structural variants of haemoglobin have been identified: HbS, HbC, HbE, HbD, HbG, HbH, HbI, Hb Lepore, etc.

Haemoglobinopathies are a group of diseases caused by the presence of abnormal haemoglobins. Approximately 60% of abnormal haemoglobins has a sufficiently modified charge distribution to allow their identification by electrophoresis.  The most frequently observed variants are HbS and HbC. The simultaneous presence of HbA and of another variant (HbS, HbC, HbE, etc.) is described respectively as heterozygous haemoglobinopathy AS, AC and AE. The presence of only one type of haemoglobin variant is called homozygous hemoglobinopathy, as in the case of HbS or HbC.

These abnormal variants may be transmitted genetically. Homozygous haemoglobinopathies can produce serious clinical pictures. Acid haemoglobin electrophoresis on agarose confirms the presence of HbS or HbC already highlighted by the Alkaline Haemoglobin Electrophoresis.

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE606KLIPOPROTEINS ELECTRO-PHORESIS KIT13130
SRE621K26260

The Lipoproteins Electrophoresis kits enable separating human serum lipoproteins by electrophoresis on agarose gel plates. The patterns are subjected to visual inspection in order to detect anomalies, such as variations of the bands or the appearance of new bands. The densitometry of the patterns allows the quantitative evaluation of lipoprotein fractions. The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 and Pretty Interlab instruments.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready for use except for the staining agent which must be reconstituted as shown in the procedure.

Sample preparation:

Fresh serum sampleSample storage and stability:

Serum: 2 days at 2°C ÷ 8°C

Lipids play many different and important roles in metabolic processes, as they are used as hormones, participate in the digestive process, constitute the energy reserve, can be used as metabolic fuel and are important components of the biological membranes. A correlation between plasma lipid disorders and atherosclerosis has been established. Lipoproteins are macromolecular complexes made up of lipids and proteins. Lipoproteins are spherical particles comprising a nucleus of non-polar lipids surrounded by polar lipids and one or more proteins, called apoproteins, on the surface. The core contains triglycerides, cholesterol esters, phospholipids and free cholesterol. The different proportions of proteins and lipids in lipoprotein complexes allow the separation of lipoproteins by electrophoresis on agarose gel, according to the differences between their net charges.

At alkaline pH, four bands can be resolved: alpha-lipoproteins, pre-beta-lipoproteins, beta-lipoproteins and chylomicrons. Lipoprotein metabolism disorders include a variety of conditions including hyperlipoproteinemia, due to high lipoprotein production, classified by Fredrickson and associates, the five major groups, each associated with a typical electrophoretic pattern. The interpretation of these profiles is important for the treatment of hyperlipidaemias.

Interfering Substances:

EDTA activates lipases and must not be used.

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE612KLDH ISOENZYMES ELECTRO-PHORESIS KIT13130

The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme kit is designed to carry out a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the LDH serum content by electrophoretic separation on agarose gel and subsequent enzymatic staining. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme found in all human tissues and cells, with the greatest concentrations in liver, heart, skeletal muscle and kidneys. Therefore, its increase in serum is an indication of tissue damage.

In a standard electrophoretic separation, 5 different LDH isoenzymes are identified from the anode to the cathode, as: LDH1, LDH2, LDH3, LDH4, LDH5.

The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 instrument.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready for use except for the staining agent which must be reconstituted with 1.2 ml of buffer.

Sample preparation:

Fresh serum sample.

Sample storage and stability:

Serum: Fresh serum sample. If necessary, 2 days at 15°C ÷ 30°C or at 2°C ÷ 8°C

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, E. C. 1.1.1.27.) is an intracellular enzyme found in human tissues, such as skeletal muscle, heart, liver and kidneys. The molecule consists of two subunits, H and M, which join to form a tetramer. The different qualitative association of the subunits gives rise to five different molecular forms of LDH, called ‘isoenzymes’ or ‘isoforms’, which can be separated by electrophoresis on agarose gel. Five bands can be separated according to their electrophoretic mobility. The LDH1 isoform, present in the heart muscle, consists of four subunits and is the most anodic, while the most cathodic isoform is LDH5 which is found in the skeletal muscle and liver, and is composed of four subunits. Intermediate mobility isoforms, i.e. LDH2, LDH3 and LDH4, can be found with different concentrations in many tissues. The quantitative measurement of these fractions provides useful information for identifying specific organ or tissue damage. LDH isoenzyme electrophoresis is an important test for diagnosing myocardial and liver damage.

After a myocardial infarction (IM), a significant increase in LDH1 is observed, with an LDH1/LDH2 ratio greater than 1 (‘flipped LDH’). LDH5 is an excellent indicator of liver damage in progress.

Interfering Substances:

Do not use haemolysed samples and ureic sera.

Some medicinal products and inhibitors (such as oxalate) affect LDH activity. Repeated freezing and thawing cycles of the samples destroy LDH activity.

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE610KALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ISOENZYMES ELECTRO-PHORESIS KIT13130

The ALP electrophoresis kit allows to quantitatively and qualitatively identify the Alkaline Phosphatase isoenzymes in human serum by electrophoresis. Alkaline Phosphatase is an enzyme found in all organs and tissues and has the highest concentrations in the liver, bile ducts, placenta and bone. Damaged tissue or which is affected by a pathological condition releases the enzymes in the blood, therefore abnormal values of serum ALP can be observed in many clinical conditions, including bone-related diseases. The ALP isoenzyme test must be performed when it is necessary to locate the anatomic part, organ or tissue affected by the pathological condition. The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 instrument.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready for use except for the NBT which must be reconstituted with 2 ml of Substrate.

Sample preparation:

Each sample must be pre-treated with Neuraminidase. Distribute 5 ml Neuraminidase into each well, then 25 μl of serum. Mix and wait 5 minutes before beginning the analysis.

Sample storage and stability:

Serum: Fresh serum sample.

If necessary, 2 days at 2°C ÷ 8°C

Enzymes are proteins which act as biological catalysts, carrying out chemical reactions in the cells of various organs and tissues. Extended cell damage can be caused by several factors that cause a significant release of enzymes in the bloodstream. Many enzymes are therefore useful as “markers” of cellular damage and the specific measurement of their activity in biological fluids is a valuable source of information for clinical laboratories. Isoenzymes are multiple forms of the same enzyme and all catalyse the same reaction but with different speed rates and substrate specificities. The most important feature of isoenzymes is the tissue/organ distribution of each isoform. Thus, the specific increase of an isoform can be related to the pathological damage of a given organ or tissue. Alkaline phosphatase (Alkaline Phosphatase, ALP, E.C. 3.1.3.1) is an enzyme that catalyses alkaline hydrolysis of a wide variety of substrates, both natural and synthetic ones. This protein is an enzyme found on the cell membrane and in almost all body tissues. It is predominant in bone (osteoblasts), liver, kidney tubes, intestinal epithelium and placenta. ALP appears to be involved in intestinal lipid transport and plays an important role in the bone calcification process. There are many isoforms of ALP which can be separated by electrophoresis on agarose gel. The following isoforms can be distinguished based on the organ of origin: hepatic (more anodic), bone, intestinal, and placental. Analysis of the electrophoresis pattern of ALP isoenzymes is of particular interest in the study of hepatobiliary and bone diseases. The significant increase in hepatic isoform may be observed in the obstruction of the bile ducts. Bone ALP increase is linked to hyperosteoblastic activity in conditions such as osteomalacia and bone tumours. Placental isoenzyme has a lower migration rate than that of the other two isoforms and only occurs during pregnancy. Intestinal ALP appears in pathological conditions associated with cirrhosis, diabetes and intestinal tract cancer. Other isoforms, distinguished by migration rates and chemical and physical features, are used as diagnostic markers of some types of tumours. Prior to carrying out the electrophoretic analysis, a special treatment of the sample, both enzymatic and thermal, is required in order to improve the separation of ALP isoforms.

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE611KCK ISOENZYMES ELECTROPHORESIS KIT13130

The CK isoenzyme kit is used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of CK isoenzymes via electrophoresis on agarose gel and subsequent specific enzyme detection. The most important use of CK isoenzymes is to diagnose myocardial damage. In these cases, the CK-MB isoenzyme appears in the serum about 4-6 hours after the myocardial infarction, reaches its activity peak around 18-24 hours and may then disappear within 72 hours. The kits have been designed to be used exclusively with the Interlab G26 instrument.

Reagent Preparation:

All reagents are ready for use except for the NBT which must be reconstituted with 1.6 ml of Substrate

Preparation of samples:

Fresh serum sample.

Sample storage and stability:

Serum: Fresh serum sample.  If necessary, 1 week at 2°C ÷ 8°C

CODE DESCRIPTION SAMPLES FOR GELTEST FOR KITInterlab G26Pretty Interlab
SRE622KCSF ISOELECTROFOCUSING KIT660

Interlab CSF Isoelectrofocusing Kits are designed for identifying oligoclonal bands in serum and CSF specimens using the isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting technique.

This technique is considered the “Gold Standard” for determining the intrathecal IgG synthesis in the clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Isoelectric focusing is, in fact, the most sensitive method for identifying oligoclonal bands in serum and CSF samples (0.040mg/dl).

The procedure involves isoelectric focusing on agarose gel using the instrument and a manual Immunoblotting phase. The isoelectric focusing on agarose gel aims at separating the proteins contained in the serum and CSF samples. Immunoblotting allows transferring the proteins to a nitrocellulose membrane which is then processed in order to identify oligoclonal IgG bands; thus, all the possible differences in the distribution of IgG in the CSF and in the serum of the same patient are highlighted. The visual comparison of the serum and CSF immunofluorescence profiles of the same patient allows identifying the oligoclonal bands produced by intrathecal synthesis, thus enabling a reliable diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Immunofixation with marked anti-IgG antigens allows detecting only the real oligoclonal IgG bands and significantly increases sensitivity; in general, the analysis is performed on non-concentrated CSF samples.

 Reagent Preparation:

For preparing the reagents refer to the procedure.

Sample preparation:

Non-concentrated CSF samples. The concentration of IgG in serum samples must brought, by dilution with distilled water, to the same concentration of IgG of the combined CSF sample.

Sample storage and stability:

Serum / CSF: Fresh serum and CSF sample. If necessary, 1 week at 2°C ÷ 8°C, 1 month at -20 °

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